Below are the show notes for Tony’s show this coming Friday.
This should be a good show. We can’t bang the drum too much about Cholesterol and what a complete farse they are. As a 10 billion Dollar per year industry, statins are hard to stop and therefore the myths and pure lies about Cholesterol and mortality rates will continue for years to come no doubt. Listen to Tony and get yoruself and yoru family educated! Don’t be another statistic!
Hip fracture risk rises with acid reflux drug use
Cholesterol and mortality – specific studies
Coffee Consumption Reduces Fibrosis Risk in Those With Fatty Liver Disease
How To Make A PVC Crisis Bow
Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus and of selected components against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens
Hip fracture risk rises with acid reflux drug use Some older women are more likely to suffer debilitating hip fractures if they take certain indigestion drugs, U.S. researchers say.–The risk of hip fracture was 1.35 times higher among post-menopausal women who regularly took drugs used to treat heartburn and acid reflux for two years compared with those who did not take the medication.—The study published in Wednesday’s issue of the British Medical Journal followed nearly 80,000 postmenopausal women participating in the U.S. Nurses Health Study from 2000 to 2008.
Since that project started in 1976, analysis of the nurses’ medical records and questionnaires every two years have provided insight into health and lifestyle risks for women ranging from breast cancer to alcohol use. The findings suggested that women who took the heartburn drugs, known as proton pump inhibitors, and smoked could face more than 1.50 times higher risk of fracture. In May 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned of hip fractures among those taking PPIs but concluded that more data was needed for a full analysis. While several other studies have raised concerns about the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of hip fractures, the results were conflicting and many lacked information on important diet and lifestyle factors that could make a difference.
Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide, the researchers said Use of the drugs increased in the U.S. after they became available without a prescription.–In the latest study, Hamed Khalili of Massachusetts General Hospital and his co-authors took menopausal status, body weight, physical activity levels, smoking, alcohol consumption and use of calcium supplements into account in their analysis. Hip fractures from low and moderate traumas such as falling on ice or off a chair were included. High traumas such as skiing accidents or falling down the stairs were not. Hip fracture risk fell after drugs stopped Over the eight-year study period, there were 893 hip fractures among the participants. Compared with use of proton pump inhibitors, regular use of a milder antacid called H2 blockers was tied to a “more modest” risk of fracture of 1.23 times higher, the researchers said. Given that use of proton pump inhibitors is on the rise, the estimates suggest the drugs could be contributing to a “high burden of fractures,” they concluded. The risk of hip fracture returned to normal two years after women stopped taking proton pump inhibitors, the researchers said.The study’s authors acknowledged drawbacks of the study, such as not having specific information on the type or brand of proton pump inhibitors used. They didn’t confirm hip fractures against medical records, but said the nurses are extremely reliable at reporting the injuries.–The study was funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
Cholesterol and mortality – specific studies
The Honolulu Study(1) was a 20 year study of cholesterol levels and mortality in 3,572 Japanese American men. The study concluded that “Only the group with low cholesterol concentration at both examinations had a significant association with mortality”. The authors went on “We have been unable to explain our results”. (I.e. we were expecting lower cholesterol to equal lower mortality, not the other way round). All credit to the team for their honest reporting of these unexpected results and their final statement in the abstract: “These data cast doubt on the scientific justification for lowering cholesterol to very low concentrations (<4·65 mmol/L) in elderly people.”Framingham similarly concluded that “There is a direct association between falling cholesterollevels over the first 14 years and mortality over the following18 years (11% overall and 14% CVD death rate increase per 1mg/dL per year drop in cholesterol levels).”(2) Kendrick does a clever calculation on this quotation and translates this into – a reduction in cholesterol from 5 to 4 mmol/L would increase your risk of dying by 400%. Elaine Meilahn reported in Circulation (2005) “In 1990, an NIH (National Institutes of Health) conference concluded from a meta-analysis of 19 studies that men and, to a lesser extent, women with a total serum cholesterol level below 4.2 mmol/L exhibited about a 10% to 20% excess total mortality compared with those with a cholesterol level between 4.2 and 5.2 mmol/L. Specifically, excess causes of death included cancer (primarily lung and hematopoietic), respiratory and digestive disease, violent death (suicide and trauma), and hemorrhagic stroke.”(3)
In The Great Cholesterol Con, Dr Malcolm Kendrick analysed some World Health Organisation (WHO) data. The WHO has extensive data from almost 200 countries on more health measures than you could imagine – definitely worth a look one rainy afternoon. This is where Kendrick presented the world with two different Seven Country Studies. Kendrick took the seven countries with the lowest saturated fat intake and then the seven countries with the highest saturated fat intake.
Cholesterol-lowering-enthusiasts may need to read this twice – but he found: “Every single one of the seven countries with the lowest saturated fat consumption has significantly higher rates of heart disease than every single one of the countries with the highest saturated fat consumption.”As Kendrick’s two unbiased seven country studies showed – there is not even an association between saturated fat and heart disease – let alone causation. However, Keys published his Seven Country Study and the rest, as they say, is history. The next chapter in The Great Cholesterol Con goes on to look at cholesterol and heart disease (and overall death rates) and quoted many great studies where it is shown that lower cholesterol is associated with higher mortality. However, it did leave me thinking – having run the data on saturated fat and heart disease, let’s just run all the data on the cholesterol and heart disease and get to the bottom of this hypothesis from all parts of the allegations.
Cholesterol & Mortality
It actually didn’t take that long – not even a couple of hours one Saturday afternoon. You go to the WHO statisitics area of their web site ( https://apps.who.int/infobase/Comparisons.aspx ) and then pick data for cholesterol from risk factors (how judgemental to start with) and then look under: Global burden of disease (mortality); All causes; Non communicable diseases and then G Cardiovascular disease (shortened to CVD). CVD deaths include ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease – that means fatal heart attacks and fatal strokes to lay people. You find the most recent year where you can get both sets of data to compare like with like.
This turns out to be 2002. You download their very user friendly spreadsheet data (CSV) – cut and paste it into a spreadsheet application and then try to remember how the heck to do scatter diagrams! The WHO data is split into men and women. I first did the scatter diagrams for average (mean) cholesterol levels and CVD deaths. Then I ran the Pearson correlation coefficient on these numbers. This gives us the term called “r”. “r” tells us if there is some kind of a relationship: an r score of 0 would indicate no relationship; an r score of 1 would indicate a perfect relationship. A negative r score is called an inverse relationship e.g. the price of concert tickets is likely to be inversely related to the number of concert tickets bought – fewer tickets being bought at higher prices.
The “r” score for men revealed that there was a small relationship of 0.13 – however this relationship was inverse. The diagram and correlation shows that higher cholesterol levels are associated with lower CVD deaths and lower cholesterol levels are associated with higher CVD deaths. In women, the relationship is stronger – to the point of being meaningful. The r score was 0.52 – but, again, inverse. For women, higher cholesterol levels are quite significantly associated with lower CVD deaths and lower cholesterol levels are quite significantly associated with higher CVD deaths. Please note that I have added r squared on the graphs below (the spreadsheet application can do this for us) and it can confirm that you’ve got your r numbers right and r squared tells us the strength of any relationship we have observed. All you need to do is to look at the lines going down to the right and wonder how on earth we ever got away with telling people that cholesterol causes heart disease. High cholesterol is associated with lower heart disease and vice versa – for all the data available in the world. High cholesterol is not even associated with high heart disease, let alone does it cause it.
It gets worse. I then kept the cholesterol information and changed the death rates to total deaths – all deaths from any cause – cancer, heart disease, diabetes, strokes – all deaths. You can see the diagrams for men and women again below. This time there is a significant relationship for both men and women: 0.66 for men and 0.74 for women – again inverse. There is a significant association between higher cholesterol levels and lower deaths and lower cholesterol levels and higher deaths for men and an even more significant relationship for women.
I removed the outliers (obvious ‘off-the-line’ data points) and reran the data and it made not one iota of difference. With 192 data points showing such a strong trend, a couple, or a handful, of countries really makes NO difference. —
This is serious. I’ve shown it to a couple of academics (Professor sort of things) with whom I’ve been having great debates, as I want to see what the view is from people who wholly believe the fat/cholesterol/heart/death hypothesis. (Kendrick talks in his book about what happened when he showed an intelligent colleague his two seven countries studies and the evidence was just dismissed instantly). It is most useful to know what the resistance arguments will be before starting to invite the resistance. The two arguments I got back were:
1) “Ah yes – but this is only an association.”
Ah yes – but a) we changed global dietary advice back in 1977-1983 on the back of an association in Seven (carefully hand picked) Countries that miraculously became a causation even when the association was far from established and b) it is an association that’s the opposite to the one that the world currently holds true and c) that’s what epidemiology is supposed to be about – establish an association and then investigate if there could be any causation or useful learnings. So, let us go out with a new paradox – that high cholesterol is associated with low deaths and then see what dietary advice emerges.
2) “But that’s total cholesterol – the key thing is the ratio of good to bad cholesterol.”– The chemical formula for cholesterol is C27H46O. There is no good version or bad version. HDL and LDL are not even cholesterol, let alone good cholesterol or bad cholesterol. They are lipoproteins and they carry cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids and protein. [U1] — This also says to me – even though saturated fat has nothing to do with cholesterol, it doesn’t actually matter. Even if it did – cholesterol is only associated with CVD deaths in an inverse way. If fat did raise cholesterol – as public health officials like to claim – it could save lives! (Their words, not mine.)
Coffee Consumption Reduces Fibrosis Risk in Those With Fatty Liver Disease
ScienceDaily (Feb. 2, 2012) — Caffeine consumption has long been associated with decreased risk of liver disease and reduced fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Now, newly published research confirms that coffee caffeine consumption reduces the risk of advanced fibrosis in those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Findings published in the February issue of Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, show that increased coffee intake, specifically among patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), decreases risk of hepatic fibrosis.—The steady increase in rates of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome over the past 20 years has given rise to greater prevalence of NAFLD. In fact, experts now believe NAFLD is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the U.S., surpassing both hepatitis B and C. The majority of patients will have isolated fatty liver which has a very low likelihood of developing progressive liver disease. However, a subset of patients will have NASH, which is characterized by inflammation of the liver, destruction of liver cells, and possibly scarring of the liver. Progression to cirrhosis (advanced scarring of the liver) may occur in about 10-11% of NASH patients over a 15 year period, although this is highly variable.—To enhance understanding of the correlation between coffee consumption and the prevalence and severity of NAFLD, a team led by Dr. Stephen Harrison, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army at Brooke Army Medical Center in Fort Sam Houston, Texas surveyed participants from a previous NAFLD study as well as NASH patients treated at the center’s hepatology clinic. The 306 participants were asked about caffeine coffee consumption and categorized into four groups: patients with no sign of fibrosis on ultrasound (control), steatosis, NASH stage 0-1, and NASH stage 2-4.–Researchers found that the average milligrams in total caffeine consumption per day in the control, steatosis, Nash 0-1, and Nash 2-4 groups was 307, 229, 351 and 252; average milligrams of coffee intake per day was 228, 160, 255, and 152, respectively. There was a significant difference in caffeine consumption between patients in the steatosis group compared to those with NASH stage 0-1. Coffee consumption was significantly greater for patients with NASH stage 0-1, with 58% of caffeine intake from regular coffee, than with NASH stage 2-4 patients at only 36% of caffeine consumption from regular coffee.—-Multiple analyses showed a negative correlation between coffee consumption and risk of hepatic fibrosis. “Our study is the first to demonstrate a histopatholgic relationship between fatty liver disease and estimated coffee intake,” concludes Dr. Harrison. “Patients with NASH may benefit from moderate coffee consumption that decreases risk of advanced fibrosis. Further prospective research should examine the amount of coffee intake on clinical outcomes.”–Story Source—The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Wiley-Blackwell, via AlphaGalileo..—Journal Reference-Jeffrey W. Molloy, Christopher J. Calcagno, Christopher D. Williams, Frances J. Jones, Dawn M. Torres, Stephen A. Harrison. Association of coffee and caffeine consumption with fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and degree of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology, 2012; 55 (2): 429 DOI: 10.1002/hep.24731
How To Make A PVC Crisis Bow
The young people of today spend less time learning to hunt and trap wild game or catch fish than generations of the past. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a survey about outdoor recreation that showed that between 2001 and 2006, 12 percent fewer people spent time fishing, and 4 percent fewer people spent time hunting. This is good news for trout and deer, but not such great news for society. Urbanization and electronic hobbies like video games and cable television shows are slowly taking the place of rural communities and outdoor recreation. Children involved in sports and other extracurricular activities have less time to spend learning about hunting and fishing – and parents shuffling them between events have less time to teach them.
Another reason people are hunting less is because the equipment is not readily available or is too expensive. Too often, sporting goods stores cater more to team sports and outdoor activities like hiking or bicycling than they do hunting and fishing. High price tags attached to the quality products found on their shelves discourage some customers from even trying those types of sports in the first place. And some other stores only carry products related to hunting and fishing during certain times of the year, making it impossible to buy the supplies necessary for practicing those sports during the off-season.
It’s the Hunt, Not the Kill
For many hunters, including the ones in my own and my husband’s families, the sport is not about killing animals. It’s about hunting, and it’s about parents passing down the traditions they learned from their parents and grandparents. Responsive Management, an outdoor research group inHarrisonburg,Virginia, says that about 90 percent of kids who hunt do so because they grew up around adults who are hunting enthusiasts. My husband is a traditional archer, and one way that he inspired our sons to try the hobby was by helping them make their own bow hunting equipment. They recently found a YouTube video that showed how to turn a PVC pipe into an archery bow, and of course had to try it out for themselves.
You might wonder why anyone would want to turn a piece of PVC pipe into a bow. First of all, it’s very economical. Prices for archery bows for a beginner or a child can start out as much as one hundred dollars or more. Higher quality equipment for serious hunters can run well over one thousand dollars. A PVC archery bow costs less than twenty dollars to make. It is a great bow for a beginner or a child because it is lightweight and easy to handle. And because the PVC construction is waterproof, it also makes a great tool for bow fishing.
Building your own PVC archery bow will require trips to both hardware and farm supply stores for supplies. This product list and the following instructions are the ones my teenage sons followed. Instructions for a few different versions of a PVC archery bow exist online, but the ones on “The Mans Cave” website were extremely easy to follow. They even have a video that shows each step from start to finish. In addition to the instructions below, they also show how to make an arrow rest from PVC pipe. My sons had so much fun on this project that they’re now making them for friends and a few of their cousins.
- One 5′ section of schedule 40 PVC pipe, 3/4″ thick
- One 5′ section of schedule 40 PVC pipe, 1/2″ thick
- One 4′ 5″ section of fiberglass rod, 3/8″ thick
- Duct tape and electrical wrap
- Pipe insulation (for handle)
- One 55″ bowstring
- Spray paint (optional)
- Safety glasses
Need to put meat on the table fast?
- Before starting any part of this project that involves cutting, filing, or sanding, please put on a pair of safety glasses. PVC shavings and dust flying about the air can easily cause damage to the eyes.
- Using a saw, cut a line down the one side of your 1/2″ thick PVC pipe. Try to keep the line as straight as possible.
- Spray the inside of both ends of your 3/4″-thick PVC pipe with WD-40.
- Spray the outside of your 1/2″-thick PVC pipe with WD-40.
- Force the 1/2″ thick PVC pipe into the 3/4″ thick section. You may have to push the pipe against the ground to force it all the way in. If you do this, please be careful because you do not want to snap your pipe in half. Keep pushing until the 1/2″-thick pipe is fully inserted into the 3/4″-thick one.
- Mark off 3/4″ from either side of the pipe.
- Using a 1/8″ drill bit, drill a hole on either side of the pipe right on the mark. Be sure the holes line up and are even on both sides at each end.
- Using a hacksaw, cut through the end of the pipe, stopping at the holes you drilled in the last step.
- Repeat this on the other end of the bow.
- Using a metal file, smooth down the inside of the cut to clean up any rough edges. You are going for a clean look during this step.
- Using rough grit sandpaper, smooth down the areas you just filed for a polished finish.
- Wipe your bow clean of any dust from the cutting and filing and use spray paint to decorate it however you want.
- Attach a piece of pipe insulation for a handle and, if you prefer to make it more permanent, duct tape it in place.
- Wrap the fiberglass rod with duct tape and then wrap it in a layer of electrical tape.
- Stick the fiberglass rod into the PVC pipes. This will help add pounds to your bow when you are shooting it.
String it as you would a normal longbow, and you are ready to begin shooting. As I said before, quite a few variations of instructions for making a PVC archery bow exist online, both for longbow and recurve types. The instructions in this article are easy to follow, especially for a beginner or someone who cannot invest a lot of money into the project.
Some bow hunting accessories are optional, while hunters from all walks agree that others are mandatory for going out to spend a day in their favorite hunting area. What you take hunting is up to you, but here are some suggestions:
- Arm guard – A good arm guard costs less than twenty dollars, and not only do they protect your arm, but they also help you focus more on how accurate your arrow flies towards its intended target. If you’re handy with leather or just feeling brave, you can find instructions online for making your own.
- Bow socks – Made of soft cloth like fleece or flannel, a bow sock (or sometimes called a bow bag) prevents equipment from becoming scratched while in storage or being transported between your house and your favorite hunting spot. If either you or your significant other is at all handy with a sewing machine, try making one with fleece purchased at your local fabric store. Some sell fleece that is 68″ wide, which is the perfect size when making a bow sock for a 60″ PVC archery bow.
- Quiver – This is by far the best item for carrying your spare arrows. A quiver prevents accidental stabbings and helps to keep the feathers at the end of the arrow from getting ruffled. Websites like Etsy have custom-made quivers of materials like leather studded with medieval-looking steel plating, raccoon fur that harkens to the days of nativeAmerica, oriental bamboo, and more. Even if you don’t plan to buy a quiver from the Internet, websites like Etsy are a great source of inspiration when looking for ideas for how to make your own items.
- Stringers – These pull the limbs of the bow evenly to allow the bowstring to loop over the tips of the bow. Using a bow stringer means the limbs are less likely to twist and thus cause damage to the bow.
- Targets – There’s nothing like practicing, whether during bow season or in the off months. You can find various types of printable bull’s-eye targets online for free. My husband and sons love sticking these on the side of a cardboard box, an old hay bale, or anything else that allows the arrow to safely enter without passing completely through.
Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus and of selected components against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens.
Pharm Biol. 2011 Sep;49(9):893-9
Authors: Mulyaningsih S, Sporer F, Reichling J, Wink M
CONTEXT: Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae) is the principal source of eucalyptus oil in the world and has been used as an antiseptic and for relieving symptoms of cough, cold, sore throat, and other infections. The oil, well known as ‘eucalyptus oil’ commercially, has been produced from the leaves. Biological properties of the essential oil of fruits from E. globulus have not been investigated much.
OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to examine the antimicrobial activity of the fruit oil of E. globulus (EGF) and the leaf oils of E. globulus (EGL), E. radiata Sieber ex DC (ERL) and E. citriodora Hook (ECL) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Furthermore, this study was attempted to characterize the oils as well as to establish a relationship between the chemical composition and the corresponding antimicrobial properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by GLC-MS. The oils and isolated major components of the oils were tested against MDR bacteria using the broth microdilution method.
RESULTS: EGF exerted the most pronounced activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ~ 250 µg/ml). EGF mainly consisted of aromadendrene (31.17%), whereas ECL had citronellal (90.07%) and citronellol (4.32%) as the major compounds. 1,8-cineole was most abundant in EGL (86.51%) and ERL (82.66%).–DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The activity of the oils can be ranked as EGF > ECL > ERL ~ EGL. However, all the oils and the components were hardly active against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Aromadendrene was found to be the most active, followed by citronellol, citronellal and 1,8-cineole.–PMID: 21591991 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]