COPPER AND ZINC SALICYLATES Bacterial Cause Found for Skin Condition Rosacea Aqueous garlic extract and its phytochemical profile– special reference to antioxidant status Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic Scientists Pursue Connection between Infectious Disease Afflicting Cattle and MorgellonsDisease Affecting Humans ************************************************************************** COPPER AND ZINC SALICYLATES—-Two Excellent Inflammation Fighters
By Walter Last
Copper is an essential trace mineral. All tissues of the body need it for normal metabolic functions. Sometimes there is too much of the inorganic form in drinking water (acid water flowing through copper pipes). It can then gradually accumulate in the body and lead to toxicity symptoms with signs of zinc deficiency, over-stimulation, psychosis and liver damage.However, in organic form as chelates or copper complexes it is excellent for reducing inflammations, strengthening connective tissue, restoring hair colour and the oxidative energy metabolism as well as fighting parasites and cancer and may sometimes improve brain and liver functions.—If you give animals a choice between drinking normal water and water in which a copper pipe has been immersed, they will reportedly prefer the high copper water. This helps to keep them free of parasites. Copper armbands are well known to reduce arthritis. Copper serum levels are elevated up to threefold above normal with inflammations and with many chronic and infectious diseases, apparently because the body mobilises all tissue stores of copper to fight the condition. During remissions the copper levels return back to normal.—The most effective anti-inflammatory agents are copper complexes. Commonly these are related to salicylic acid. In addition, copper ascorbate has strong anti-viral properties. Copper salicylate has a better anti-inflammatory effect than cortisone but without the side effects. In addition it has also good anti-cancer, anti-tremor and anti-convulsive properties, suitable for treatment of epilepsy and possibly Parkinson’s disease. Children with severe copper deficiency constantly have convulsive seizures. Another feature of severe copper deficiency is degeneration of the central nervous system. There are at least 6 important copper-dependent enzymes in the brain. One of these is required for the conversion of tyrosine into dopamine which is lacking in Parkinson’s disease. A copper enzyme is also needed for the synthesis of adrenalin (epinephrine).–In experiments copper salicylate prevented chemically induced skin cancers. Furthermore, a single application resulted in a 55% reduction in experimental animal tumours in 20 weeks. The main metabolic defect of cancer cells, according to Dr Johanna Budwig and other researchers, is a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase. This causes a blockage in the cellular respiration or oxidative energy production of the affected cells. Budwig claims that plenty of linseed oil and sulphur amino acids (L-cysteine and especially L-methionine) help to correct this situation.—Cytochrome oxidase is a copper dependent enzyme and additional copper might be of further benefit. In the final stages of this oxidative energy production electrons are transferred to copper (II) and iron (III) in the cytochrome oxidase to form copper (I) and iron (II). In the last step these electrons are then transferred to oxygen, which now can attract hydrogen ions to form water. In cancer cells this transfer of electrons to oxygen is blocked and energy is being produced very inefficiently by converting glucose into lactic acid.–However, practical experience has shown that copper is more important to prevent cancer or a regrowth of tumours and possibly with dormant tumours. If growing tumours are present, then copper is needed to form new blood vessels. Taking high amounts of zinc creates a relative copper deficiency and helps to prevent the formation of new blood vessels.—Copper salicylates have a similar action as superoxide dismutase (SOD) to protect cells from free radicals. Dr John R.J. Sorenson at the University of Arkansas has done most of the research work on copper complexes. In one of his publications he states that with the exception of Wilson’s disease, there are no chronic degenerative diseases in man known to result from non-industrial exposure to copper.–Dr Werner Hangerter, head of medicine at the University of Kiel, successfully used copper salicylates for over 20 years with more than 1100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Of 620 patients with rheumatoid arthritis 65% became symptom free and another 23% improved significantly, only 12% remained unchanged. With acute rheumatic fever 100% became symptom free. Also neuromuscular problems such as sciatica, neuralgia and cervical spine-shoulder problems responded very well. Even short-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis resulted in long-term remissions or improvements.—The therapeutic potency and safety of the copper complexes of aspirin (acetyl-salicylic acid) and salicylic acid is much better than for aspirin itself or for inorganic copper. These complexes are 5 to 8 times more effective than aspirin but less toxic. The therapeutic index (the margin between effectiveness and toxic effects) has been stated as being significantly greater than for other anti-inflammatory drugs. While aspirin causes or aggravates peptic ulcers, the copper complexes have a better ulcer-healing effect than commonly used anti-inflammatory ulcer drugs. Harmful effects of aspirin, salicylic acid and similar drugs apparently arise because they bind copper in the body and cause a localised copper deficiency in the tissues.—Unfortunately, copper salicylate or other effective copper complexes are not normally available or only in very low doses, presumably because they cannot be patented. However, they are relatively easy to make for someone who wants to experiment. Order salicylic acid through a cooperating pharmacist and dissolve 2 g or about half a teaspoonful in half a litre of hot water.–Use covered glassware and distilled or de-ionised water and several pieces of copper with a large surface area immersed in it. Keep it warm, between 60º and 90ºC or just below boiling. Add more water as required and adjust the final volume to 500 ml. At first a light yellow-greenish colour develops, but at one point the colour considerably deepens. This may happen after 15 to 20 hours of heating and you may now let it cool and fill into a glass bottle.—Near the end of the heating process and during storage black copper oxide starts forming and slowly accumulates at the bottom. This is due to copper being converted from the original one-valent copper (I) salicylate to two-valent copper (II) salicylate. With this, the salicylic acid binds only half of the dissolved copper and the rest becomes copper oxide. The effectiveness of the solution does not seem to be affected by this and the amount of copper in the complex is not related to its potency. From time to time you may decant the solution from any settled copper oxide and crystals or filter it through tissue paper.—Copper (I) salicylate is a strong antioxidant and also appears to have good anti-inflammatory qualities, but all the published papers are on copper (II) salicylate. However the only data for a Cu (I) complex that I could find (penicillamine) showed it to have even stronger anti-inflammatory activity than the corresponding Cu (II) complex. Initially copper (I) will dominate in the self-prepared copper salicylate but the more copper oxide precipitates the more will copper (II) gain the upper hand. While salicylic acid only dissolves in hot water, copper (II) salicylate is easily soluble in cold water and is very stable and generally well tolerated when taken orally.Copper salicylate is also excellent for external use as packs or rubs on sites of tumours and inflammation, also rubbing it on skin prone to skin cancer. To improve its skin absorption you may mix it with some aloe vera gel or follow the copper salicylate rub with some aloe vera.—For internal use with generalised inflammations or other indications 60 mg of copper salicylate have been used in clinical trials once or twice and up to four times daily. Try a teaspoonful (approximately 25 mg of copper salicylate) three times daily in liquids with meals, preferably under professional supervision. For short-term use you may also double this amount. When it produces the desired effect, cut back to a maintenance dose of 1 teaspoonful a day or interrupt the intake after 2 weeks to see what happens.—Copper (I) salicylate is a strong antioxidant and may interfere with oxygen therapy. Therefore, it is advisable to alternate periods of taking high doses of copper salicylate with periods of intensive oxygen therapy. However, external application of copper salicylate should still be fine during oxygen therapy.—Another possibility of making copper salicylate yourself is by ingesting sodium salicylate and a copper chelate together. Copper salicylate then appears to form in the stomach. In some countries sodium salicylate is available as tablets, in others it may be obtained from a friendly chemist/pharmacist as a crystallised powder. Copper chelate, commonly as amino acid chelate or gluconate, may be available from a health food shop or over the Internet. Taking a 650 mg tablet of sodium salicylate together with 5 mg of copper in chelated form has reportedly eliminated severe arthritic pain. As maintenance dose a 350 mg tablet of sodium salicylate together with 2.5 mg of copper have been taken up to three times a day. If the sodium salicylate is available as powder, you may assume that a level teaspoonful is about 4 g. By dividing this into 6 equal portions you will have about 650 mg per portion.—You also find a source of copper salicylate tablets on the Internet or you may be able to obtain copper (II) salicylate crystals from a supplier of laboratory or fine chemicals. In this case you could divide a rounded teaspoonful into 100 equal parts, each part would then be approximately 50 mg.——–For a potent anti-viral remedy you may produce copper ascorbate. This is not difficult either. The only problem is that ascorbic acid easily becomes oxidised in contact with metal. Therefore, it is best to exclude all air. Bring some distilled or de-ionised water to boiling and, as hot as possible, fill a 500 ml glass or hard plastic container nearly to the top. Immerse a piece of copper and add 4 to 5 g or about one teaspoon of ascorbic acid powder. Keep refrigerated and remove the copper after a few days. After part of it has been used minimise the air space by filling it into a smaller bottle or jar. As an infection fighter try a teaspoonful several times a day for up to 2 weeks.—Copper salicylate is a very stable complex and most of it appears to be excreted unchanged. Therefore, it may be regarded more as a remedy rather than a food supplement. Nevertheless, when taking this or other copper complexes, colloids or chelates over a longer period it is advisable to take additional zinc, about 30 mg a day, in order to avoid a zinc deficiency from developing.—Finally I want to stress that the use of copper salicylate and ascorbate, especially when you make these yourself, is strictly experimental and no one can take any responsibility for what you are doing. If in doubt, then use it only externally. Individuals who are sensitive to salicylates need to be extra careful but I believe that even then it will generally be well tolerated. Handle copper salicylate with care, it stains garments.–I believe that colloidal copper has similar beneficial properties as copper salicylate and you might alternate using both with some longer breaks in-between. You can make colloidal copper in the same way as colloidal silver, just use two strips of copper instead of silver electrodes. However, the use of colloidal copper is experimental as well and you have to find out by yourself how much to take and how beneficial it is for you.—The Schweitzer Formula—Zinc has strong anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties as well but can become deficient with a high copper intake. Therefore, it is usually best to increase the intake of both minerals together.[U1] With a high copper intake, also a high zinc supplementation should be used. This may be best in the form of Schweitzer Formula, a complex formed by zinc (oxide or carbonate), boron (boric acid) and salicylic acid. This is an excellent antibiotic, disinfectant, fungicide, anti-inflammatory and healing remedy.—-The Schweitzer Formula was developed 1915 in Germany and sold worldwide since 1920. In addition to any kind of infection or inflammation, it has been used in cancer treatment, to improve the immune response and blood oxygenation. Applied externally it helps to heal injuries and skin diseases, including acne, scarring varicose veins and varicose ulcers.—You can easily make the Schweitzer Formula yourself. Dissolve 9.2 g of salicylic acid, 2.1 g of boric acid and 2.7 g of zinc oxide or 4 g of zinc carbonate in 2 litres of hot water. You may get these ingredients from a pharmacist or supplier of fine chemicals and have exact quantities weight out. However, it is sufficient to use approximate amounts. You may use 2 level teaspoons of salicylic acid and half a teaspoon each of boric acid and zinc oxide or one level teaspoon of zinc carbonate.—-However, in Australia boric acid has now been scheduled as a prescription poison. Apparently eating large amounts of boric acid mixed with castor sugar that the parents had used to eliminate ants poisoned some infants. If you cannot obtain boric acid from a friendly chemist, you may use borax instead. This introduces some additional sodium ions. While this is not desirable, I do not expect this to significantly reduce the healing qualities of the Schweitzer Formula. To get the same amount of boron you may use about 30% more borax than boric acid.—-Use distilled or de-ionised water and a non-metal container. Heat for about an hour and stir occasionally with a non-metal spoon until no more of the zinc oxide or zinc carbonate at the bottom of the container seems to dissolve. Then decant or filter into a glass container and store in a dark and cool place. Any surplus of zinc oxide or carbonate that remains undissolved shows that all the boric acid and salicylic acid have been used up. However, any surplus of boric acid would be beneficial and just supply additional boron.–As a biochemist I do not see a difference between using this solution directly and letting it crystallise and then dissolving the crystals. However, I have not been able to verify this in a clinical trial. If you do want to crystallise the complex, then let the water evaporate very slowly in a flat non-metal tray covered with fine gauze. As a general rule, the slower the crystallisation, the bigger the crystals. Therefore, keep the tray undisturbed in a cool place. For quick crystallisation and smaller crystals you may expose the tray to direct sunlight. For use you may then dissolve the crystals again in 2 litres of hot water.—–As with copper salicylate, there are no exact guidelines on how much to take. A tablespoonful has been taken 3 times daily with liquid or meals for extended periods. For shorter periods this dose has been doubled. It is also good to rub onto the skin, especially where there are any problems.—You may take this at the ratio of one tablespoon of Schweitzer Formula to one teaspoon of copper salicylate[U2] . For long-term use I would take one spoonful of each daily. I believe that long-term use of copper or zinc should be balanced by taking the other mineral as well, be it as salicylate complex, colloid or conventional remedy. I also believe that copper and zinc as complexes or colloids are safer and more effective than the long-term use of aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs.—-One tablespoonful of Schweitzer contains about 15 mg of zinc, 15 mg of boric acid or 2.5 mg of boron and 70 mg of salicylic acid. As with copper salicylate, most of these can be expected to be eliminated from the body as a complex. Therefore, Schweitzer Formula cannot be regarded as a zinc or boron supplement and these may need to be additionally supplemented in a different form. However, to assess any potential toxicity, we may assume that the complex completely disintegrates in the body. This would then supply only relatively low levels of the individual ingredients. Twice these amounts of zinc and boron are recommended as being beneficial and much higher amounts have been used in nutritional therapy. Therefore, I cannot see any possible toxicity at least up to 3 tablespoons daily.—Also many commonly used foods are quite high in salicylates. Some individuals, especially hyperactive children are sensitive to salicylates and get a reaction from it. However, I believe that this is due to the chelating effect of salicylic acid, which may cause zinc and copper deficiency in the body. Therefore, in the form of zinc and copper complexes, salicylates may not normally cause a reaction in susceptible individuals.–After a period of use, it is advisable to interrupt using these remedies for a while and observe any effects., I want to stress again, that the use of these remedies over long periods or in high doses is experimental and you must be prepared to take responsibility for any side effects yourself. *************************************************************************************** Bacterial Cause Found for Skin Condition Rosacea ScienceDaily (Aug. 28, 2012) — Scientists are closer to establishing a definitive bacterial cause for the skin condition rosacea. This will allow more targeted, effective treatments to be developed for sufferers, according to a review published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology.—Rosacea is a common dermatological condition that causes reddening and inflammation of the skin mostly around the cheeks, nose and chin. In severe cases skin lesions may form and lead to disfigurement[U3] . Rosacea affects around 3% of the population — usually fair-skinned females aged 30-50 and particularly those with weak immune systems. The condition is treated with a variety of antibiotics, even though there has never been a well-established bacterial cause.[U4] –A new review carried out by the National University of Ireland concludes that rosacea may be triggered by bacteria that live within tiny mites that reside in the skin.–The mite species Demodex folliculorum is worm-like in shape and usually lives harmlessly inside the pilosebaceous unit which surrounds hair follicles of the face. They are normal inhabitants of the face and increase in number with age and skin damage — for example, following exposure to sunlight. The numbers of Demodex mites living in the skin of rosacea patients is higher than in normal individuals[U5] , which has previously suggested a possible role for the mites in initiating the condition.—More recently, the bacterium Bacillus oleronius was isolated from inside a Demodex mite[U6] and was found to produce molecules provoking an immune reaction in rosacea patients. Other studies have shown patients with varying types of rosacea react to the molecules produced by this bacterium — exposing it as a likely trigger for the condition. [U7] What’s more, this bacterium is sensitive to the antibiotics used to treat rosacea.—Dr Kevin Kavanagh who conducted the review explained, “The bacteria live in the digestive tracts of Demodex mites found on the face, in a mutually beneficial relationship. When the mites die, the bacteria are released and leak into surrounding skin tissues — triggering tissue degradation and inflammation.”[U8] —“Once the numbers of mites increase, so does the number of bacteria, making rosacea more likely to occur. Targeting these bacteria may be a useful way of treating and preventing this condition,” said Dr Kavanagh. “Alternatively we could look at controlling the population of Demodex mites in the face.. Some pharmaceutical companies are already developing therapies to do this, which represents a novel way of preventing and reversing rosacea, which can be painful and embarrassing for many people.”—-Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Society for General Microbiology, via AlphaGalileo. —Journal Reference-Stanisław Jarmuda, Niamh O’Reilly, Ryszard Żaba, Oliwia Jakubowicz, Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz and Kevin Kavanagh. The potential role of Demodex folliculorum mites and bacteria in the induction of rosacea. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2012 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.048090-0 ************************************************************************** Aqueous garlic extract and its phytochemical profile– special reference to antioxidant status. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jun;63(4):431-9—Authors: Rasul Suleria HA, Sadiq Butt M, Muhammad Anjum F, Saeed F, Batool R, Nisar Ahmad A Abstract—Garlic (Allium sativum L) has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its bioactive components and is used in different diet-based therapies to cure various lifestyle-related disorders. For this purpose, characterization and extraction of garlic were carried out followed by antioxidant assays. Different solvents (50% aqueous ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol and water) at different time intervals (4, 5 and 6 h) at 60°C were used to optimize aqueous extraction efficiency of garlic. Among the solvents, water extract resulted in better extraction yield (31.85 ± 2.09 g/25 g) at 5 h. The antioxidant potential of all these solvents was estimated through in vitro studies. In this context, it was observed that higher amount of total phenolic contents was present in aqueous methanol 71.87 ± 1.69% at 45 min. Antiradical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and antioxidant activity showed that the maximum value was 73.80 ± 3.69 and 83.83 ± 0.16%, respectively, in methanolic extract at 45 min while glucose diffusion and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 97.00 ± 0.20 and 32.66 ± 0.72% at p < 0.05, respectively. Aqueous garlic extract was selected as the best treatment on the basis of percentage yield and safety modulation in human body absorption. Aqueous garlic extract was subjected to pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and colour. It was observed that the pH of aqueous garlic extract decreased with the passage of time while acidity increased. It was also concluded that storage affected the value of TSS and colour significantly. L* values for colour on 0 day were 34.18 ± 0.08, whereas those on 28th day were 38.84 ± 0.03. It was predicted that 28 days storage resulted in significant increase in L* value, while a* value decreased from 4.31 ± 0.01 to 0.32 ± 0.01 at the end of storage study.—PMID: 22098476 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] ********************************************************************** Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health- possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn). J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;22(1-2):3-10—Authors: Das KK, Dhundasi SA, Das SN Abstract—Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant.–PMID: 22865357 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] **************************************************************************** http://www.thecehf.org/morgellons-disease-research-update-august-2012.html Morgellons Disease Research Update August 2012 Research Update … Scientists Pursue Connection between Infectious Disease Afflicting Cattle and Morgellons Disease Affecting Humans Progress moves forward as more research shows Morgellons disease has a physiologic (physical not mental) basis. ——- The Morgellons break through started with the research publication, Filament Formation Associated with Spirochetal Infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons Disease by Marianne Middelveen, a Canadian veterinary microbiologist and Raphael Stricker, MD. The CEHF first announced this news last fall when this peer reviewed publication appeared in the November, 2011 issue of Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology.
Why is this important? —-In November, 2011, Middelveen and Stricker reported to have found evidence of a veterinary analog to Morgellons (MD). BDD, an infectious disease which has plagued cattle for decades, has fibers/filaments within their tissue and lesions that were recognized as a match to those found in the controversial disease known as Morgellons (MD) in humans. Studies on fibers/filaments from cattle with the bovine hoof disease and those found in MD suffers provided startling evidence challenging the dermatologists’ unfounded assumption that MD is a psychiatric disorder called “Delusions of Parasitosis”. Anyone who suffers from Morgellons knows how real these symptoms are and how disheartening it is to be told it is all in your head. Although the publication stated that the etiology (cause) of MD was not yet known, the findings by Middelveen and Stricker provided corroborative evidence to support a physiological and, perhaps, infectious etiology, lending a new direction for further research. Second Study Announced by the CEHF on May 16, 2012 –Morgellon Fibres http://www.omicsonline.org/2155-9554/2155-9554-3-140.pdf Indeed, their second study, Morgellons Disease: A Chemical and Light Microscopic Study, published May, 2012 in the peer reviewed publication, Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research, continued this BDD and MD comparison in greater detail. Researchers were able to conduct a more in-depth analysis of dermatological specimens from three Morgellons patients and biopsies from cattle with proliferative late stage BDD. Examinations were conducted by light microscopy, by chemical experiments and by immunohistological testing. Results of the Study … These findings confirmed that filaments/fibers from both bovine and human samples were similar in formation at the cellular level and had the chemical and physical properties of keratin. The composition of MD filaments from humans was confirmed to be keratin by immunohistological staining with antibodies specific for human keratins. Fibers from three human patients were found to be biological in origin and are produced by keratinocytes in epithelial and follicular tissues. —An interesting side note is that researchers Middelveen and Stricker found filaments/fibers associated with MD beneath unbroken skin as well as in lesions, thus, demonstrating they are not self-implanted. This confirms previous research from Dr. Randy Wymore at the OSU-Center for the Investigation of Morgellons Disease. Why is this important? —-The original premise–that MD is physiological is holding up to the test of scientific scrutiny. Morgellons Study Cited by Faculty of 1000 http://www.thecehf.org/morgellons-study-cited-by-faculty-of-1000.html The quality and importance of this research is highlighted in Faculty of 1000 Award. Faculty of 1000 (F1000) is a global community of over 10,000 experts who select, rate and evaluate the very best articles in biology and medicine. The core mission of the F1000 is to identify and evaluate the most important articles in biology and medical research publications. The organization highlights and brings awareness to significant new research. The selection of Morgellons Disease: A Chemical and Light Microscopic Study places the work in this work in the top 2% of published articles in these fields. It classifies the study as “must read” and is certainly an honor for the entire research team. More information can be accessed at the F1000 website (http://f1000.com/716597867). Thank You and Congratulations to Our Researchers!! —-No one can apply to be considered for this. This research was chosen and recognized on its merits and for the importance it holds worldwide. Everyone at The Charles E. Holman Foundation and from the Morgellons community wish to express our congratulations to Marianne Middelveen, Elizabeth Rasmussen, Douglas Kahn, and Raphael Stricker for this recognition. The award was indeed serendipity. We now have documented, peer reviewed evidence published, corroborating MD is not Delusions of Parasitosis. MD, like BBD, has a true physical cause. “ … Because BDD is a disease in which spirochetes have been identified as primary etiologic agents, and spirochetal sero-reactivity has been associated with MD, it is reasonable to assume that spirochetal infection plays an important role in MD… Further immunohistological and electron microscopy studies are needed to solve the mystery of Morgellons …” (Middelveen and Stricker). This points the way to the next step in our research. To paraphrase Paul Harvey, stay tuned in and signed up for the next edition of Keeping You in the Loop …for the “rest of the story.”